Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (2023)

Time Period 1: 1450- 1648

Outline

Renaissance

Protestant Reformation

Age of Exploration

Developments in Europe in 1600s

General Timeline
Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (1)

General Maps
Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (2)
Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (3)

Course Content

Italian Renaissance

Italian City-States

  • Merchants became really wealthy & led comfortable lives

    • Florence was the wealthiest city-state

    • Most merchants were wealthy bankers

  • Most Northern Italian states were known as communes

    • Ruled by a few wealthy merchants (oligarchy)

    • Only wealthy merchants or people who lived their for a long time could afford to stay

    • Merchants regulated everything, nobles didn't have much power

    • These wealthy merchant rulers built huge courts to display their wealth

      • Important ceremonies would happen there

  • Renaissance created a strong attachment to one city, leading to the growth of major city-states

    • Larger Italian city-states were dominating & absorbing the smaller ones

    • Venice, Milan, Papal States (Rome), Naples, & Florence were most powerful states

      • Venice was ruled by merchant oligarchy

      • Milan was ruled by Sforza family

      • Spanish Kingdom ofAragon ruled Naples

      • Medici family ruled Florence

  • Dominican Friar Girolamo Savanarola expelled Medicis from Florence

    • Believed Medicis were corrupt as they were secular & corrupt

    • Savanarola organized government according to Christian standards

    • Pope excommunicated him & Medicis retook power as Florentines became tired of his rule

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (4)

Origins of Renaissance

  • Renaissance refers to a "rebirth" of human achievements & ancient literature

    • Giorgio Vasari first coined the word "Renaissance"​

  • Humanism refers to the study of human achievements

    • Francesco Petrarch uncovered ancient Roman texts, believed those to be valuable

      • Studied Cicero, enjoyed his elegant writing & use of Latin language​

    • Petrarch's revival of ancient Latin classics was known as humanism

  • Believed humans lay in between God & material world

    • Marsilio Ficino believed Plato was precursor of Christ

    • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola believed humans that to excellentthings have virtú (virtue)

      • Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, detailing how being a man is a really good thing​

    • Believed instudying things in their ideal form

  • Believed education was for the public good as opposed to for private or religious purposes

    • Believed all men should be educated in Latin classics & humanist thought​

    • Didn't believe women should be educated as much

    • Baldassare Castiglione wroteThe Courtier(1528), believed men should be educated to gain a higher place in society

  • Niccolo Machiavelli wroteThe Prince(1532)

    • Believed rulers should be wise & must preserve security​

    • Believed rulers can do brutal things to maintain power but shouldn't do anything for personal pleasure

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (5)

Printing Press & How it Helped Renaissance

  • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440s

    • Used stamps to print letters just like stamps would print symbols on jewelry

  • More books were disseminated via printing press

    • Renaissance thinkers spread their ideas via books​

    • More literacy (because more schools opened) led to a larger audience for books

    • Books were written for secular purposes as well

  • Print houses became common

    • Many people opened these to disseminate the latest Renaissance books

    • People gathered in print houses to discuss the books

  • Literate people would read to illiterate people

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (6)

Spread of Renaissance Ideals & Renaissance Art

  • Renaissance ideals were shown via art

  • Urban groups & wealthy people commissioned famous artists to make works of art

    • Filippo Brunelleschi designed the Florence dome​

    • Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel of Vatican City, commissioned by Pope Julius II

  • Art showed human ideals as opposed to spiritual ideals

    • Giotto started by sculpting/painting realhuman figuresinstead of exaggerated​​body parts

    • Filippo Brunelleschi also developed linear perspective

      • This can create 3-D depictions on a 2-D surface​

      • Piera della Francesca used linear perspective in his works

    • Donatello sculpted accurate human figures to represent balance instead of exaggeration

  • Artists were patronized for their artistic styles

  • Most artists were trained in workshops

    • Women rarely received full training like men​

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (7)

Major Renaissance People & Works

Giorgio Vasari

First person to coin the term "Renaissance." Means "rebirth."

Francesco Petrarch

Created humanist thought, Revived ancient Roman classics, promoted the study of human achievements (humanism).

Marsilio Ficino

Studied Plato, believed Platonic teachings to be the precursor to Christianity.

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (8)

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

WroteOration on the Dignity of Man, believed mankind is good & men (especially virtuous men) are good people.

Baldassare Castiglione

WroteThe Courtier, believed men should be educated in order to gain a high status in society. Didn't women should be as educated.

Niccolo Machiavelli

WroteThe Prince, believed rulers should be wise & can use brutal tactics to maintain rule but not for personal pleasure.

Thomas More

English Northern Renaissance thinker. Wrote Utopia, believed there lay a utopian land where poverty doesn't exist & all men get humanist education.

Desiderius Erasmus

Northern Renaissance thinker from Rotterdam. Believed the church should have a Renaissance, promoted reading the Bible & ancient Christian texts.

Filippo Brunelleschi

Commissioned by wealthy Florentine merchants to make the Florence dome. Known for developing idea of linear perspective.

Giotto & Donatello

Made sculptures that depict actual human figures as opposed to exaggerated human figures.

Piero della Francesca

Famous for using linear perspective in his works.

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (9)

Albrecht Dürer

German Northern Renaissance thinker. Made woodcuts (mechanical devices) to aid other artists in using linear perspective.

Northern Renaissance

  • Northern Renaissance was the spread of Renaissance ideals throughout Europe (north of Italy)

  • Some Northern Renaissance thinkers combined Christianity with Humanism

    • Believed classical values of patience & calmness combine with Christian values of love & faith

  • Thomas More (England) published Utopia(1516)​

    • Believed there lay a utopian land where everyone receives humanist education,& poverty is solved​

  • Desiderius Erasmus (Rotterdam) wrote scholarly books to harmonize humanism with Christianity

    • Believed in inner morality rather than Scholastic theology

    • Believed the church should have a renaissance

    • Promoted reading the Bible & Christian texts

    • TranslatedNew Testamentinto Latin

  • Northern Renaissance art used oil paintings & wood panels

    • Albrecht Dürer created woodcuts & other mechanical devices to help artists with linear perspective

    • Mannerismdeveloped, where people used oil paintings to exaggerate certain body parts or expressions

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (10)

Society During Renaissance Time

  • Slavery was somewhat common

    • Africans were regarded as inferior & many Europeans kept Africans as slaves

    • Started in Ancient Rome, but local authorities banned slavery later on

    • Slavery continued later, having slaves signified wealth

  • Most hierarchies were based on wealth

    • Wealthy merchants lived in large houses & sometimes gained political power

    • Still, nobles had higher social status than commoners

    • People did things for honor, regardless of the wealth it provided​

  • Women were regarded as inferior to men

    • Many philosophers wondered why women were inferior​

    • ​Unmarried men were inferior to married men

    • Women needed to be married as they couldn't support a family with their small wage

    • This gender arrangement was the most natural hierarchical arrangement in society

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (11)

Spain

Before 1469, Spain was divided into multiple kingdoms

In 1469, King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile

Partially unified Spain

(Video) AP Euro Period 1 Review: 1450 to 1648

In 1478, Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a government program intended to attack all non-Catholics

Through Spanish Inquisition, they conquered Muslim Kingdom of Granada in 1492

Thus, Spain was completely unified under Catholic rule. End of Spanish Inquisition

  • Many Jews came to Spain as France & England expelled all their Jews

    • Jews were really good in business

    • High Jewish population led to many Anti-Semitic programs to expel the Jews

    • Most Jews converted, but Spanish Catholics believed they weren't pure Catholics (they still had "Jewish blood")

      • Thus, 75% of Jews in Spain fled​

  • Isabella & Ferdinand's daughter married King of Netherlands & Holy Roman Empire, so their son, Charles V or Habsburgs, had a huge inherited realm (Spain, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)

France

After 100 Years' War with English, King Charles VII started consolidating French rule. He expelled the English

Charles VII's son, Louis XI, improved French army & conquered Burgundy

Louis XI's son, Louis XII, married Anne of Brittany, bringing Duchy of Brittany into French realm

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (12)

Louis XII's son, Francis I, signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X, allowing Francis I to elect French bishops.

England

During reign of Henry IV, aristocrats in government fought for power. Henry VI took power later, which weakened power of monarchy

Edward IV of York helped reconstruct the English monarchy. Heused methods suggested by Machiavelli inThe Prince(cruelty, wisdom, etc.).

Henry VII distrusted nobles & kept small landowners in government positions

Martin Luther & Creation of Protestantism

  • Martin Luther, a theology professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, believed the Catholic church was corrupt

What was Wrong with the Church?
  • Luther believed people go to heaven by way of god rather than through the Catholic church

  • Luther hated the sale of indulgences (Catholic church sold forgivenesses of sins to people)

  • Luther hated that the Bible was only available in Latin as opposed to regional and common languages

  • Hated pluralism (a practice where some clergymen held multiple leadership positions)

Hover for the Answer

  • In 1517, Luther wrote95 Theses, a pamphlet with 95 arguments against the church & nailed it to the door of Wittenberg Church

  • Pope Leo X excommunicated him in 1520

  • At Diet of Worms (1521), Luther refused to recant his ideas

    • Luther's refusal to recant his ideas led more people to hear about his ideas

  • Protestant Church was created at Diet of Speyer (1529)

    • Believed god initiated salvation​

    • Religious authority rest in the Bible alone

    • Only approved religious practices that can be supported by the Bible or other scriptures

      • The Sacraments were rejected as the scriptures didn't write about them

  • Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss man, helped Luther spread his ideas

    • Believed in only using the New Testament, as it contained the true words of god​

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (13)

Spread of Protestant Reformation

Appeal of Protestantism

  • Protestant ideals spread quickly via the printing press

    • Humanists liked Protestantism because of its idea of leading simple lives based on faith

  • Luther & Zwingli appointed pastors in local cities to help spread Protestantism

  • A group known as "Radicals" wanted a religious institution separate from state & mounted revolts

    • Known as anabaptists as they baptized adults

    • Didn't believe in a state church, wanted church to be separate from state

    • Peasants got angry due to crop failures & confiscation of property by government, so they led a massive rebellion

      • They wanted church-state separation

      • Government crushed this, 75,000 died

  • Protestants believed all women should be married

    • Hated prostitution, forced brothels to close

    • Believed clergymen should marry, and their wives would have respectable positions as pastors' wives

    • Believed marriage represents spiritual equality of men & women

    • Forced monasteries/covenants to close

    • Women could not be members of clergy

  • Charles V, ruler of Habsburg domain,signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)

    • Charles V acquired this land through family marriages, ruled large area from Austria to Spain

    • Called Diet of Augsburg (1550) to promote Catholicism & stop religious division

    • Protestants mounted coalition against him, so he signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)

      • Allowed each st​ate to choose its own religion (Catholicism or Lutheranism)

  • Protestantism appealed in Scandinavia

    • King Christian III of Denmark-Norway (union of the two states) adopted Lutheranism

      • Spread easily in Denmark & slowly in Norway & Iceland​

    • King Gustav I of Sweden adopted Lutheranism

      • Later altered Lutheran doctrine slightly to create their own church

  • Czechs in Bohemia first partially embraced Lutheranism but then reconverted to Catholicism

  • Poland-Lithuania (joint government) first initially had some converts to Lutheranism & Calvinism, but later reverted to Catholicism after counter reformation

  • Hungarians hated Germans so they didn't embrace Protestantism

    • After Ottoman invasion of Hungary, part of Hungary became Lutheran

    • In late 1600s when Ottomans retreated & Habsburgs retook power, Catholicism became dominant again

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (14)

Creation of Anglican Church

  • King Henry VIII created Church of England

    • Was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of rulers of Spain

    • Catherine was the widow of Henry VIII's brother, but their marriage was against Christian law

    • Catherine's nephew, Charles V (Habsburg ruler), besieged Rome & kept Pope Clement VII as a prisoner, but Charles V disapproved the divorce

    • Thus, Henry VIII proclaimed autonomy from papal authority & created Anglican Church

      • Had some Catholic elements like ornate ceremonies, hierarchical clergy, but was mostly Protestant​

      • Confiscated property of monasteries & distributed them to upper class

    • Irish were Catholic & England had some rule over Ireland

      • Irish Catholics revolted, but English confiscated their land & forced them to convert

    • Thomas Cranmer (archbishop of Canterbury) wroteBook of Common Prayer(1549), which became official book of Anglican Church

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (15)

Creation of Puritan Church & Post-Anglican England

After King Henry VIII's death, Mary of Tudor (Henry VIII's daughter with Catherine of Aragon) took power in England

Mary of Tudor married a Catholic, so Anglicans went to exile in mainland Europe

Other Anglicans in England assassinated Mary of Tudor

Elizabeth altered the Anglican doctrine to something between Puritan& Catholic ideologies, but it was more Protestant than before

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (16)

Anglicans in exile came back to England, created Puritan church (wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements)

Elizabeth (King Henry VIII's daughter with his other wife) took over & became monarch

Spanish Armada (1588)

King Philip II of Spain married Mary of Tudor, hoping to make England Catholic

This plan ended when Mary of Tudor was assassinated by Anglicans

Another Mary, Queen of Scotland, (a Catholic) had another opportunity to kill Elizabeth. She was Elizabeth's cousin

English troops easily defeated Spanish armada, forcing them to retaliate

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (17)

Philip II then sent navy troops (Spanish Armada) to England to restore Catholicism there (1588)

Elizabeth imprisoned Mary of Scotland, and English later executed Mary of Scotland

Creation of Calvinism

  • John Calvin converted to Protestantism, created his own denomination of Protestantism in Geneva

    • Believed God had chosen a group of people for salvation (an idea known aspredestination)

      • That group was known as "the elect"​

    • Believed that people should work hard as it portrays that they were among "the elect"

    • Believed all sovereignty is in god, no importance for human beings

    • Executed all heretics to Calvinism

  • Scotland later created Presbyterian Church, modeled on Calvinism

    • Many Scottish nobles supported Protestantism while the king & queen were Catholic

    • Scottish man John Knox convinced Scottish Parliament to abandon papal authority

      • Wanted religious leadership of a council of ministers (known as Presbyters)

    • Created Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which was Calvinist & had a simple doctrine

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (18)
(Video) AP Euro 1450-1648, Unit 1

Religious Wars

Religious War in France

King Francis I of France needed to raise taxes to pay for Habsburg-Valois wars. Signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X to gain ability to appoint French clergymen himself

Calvinism became popular among French nobility. Gained popularity in countryside. French Protestants were known as Huguenots

King Henry II died in 1559, so his 3 sons took over & had weak leadership. French nobles adopted Calvinism to weaken French rule. King Henry III became main leader among the 3 sons

Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) took over after Henry III died. Issued Edict of Nantes (1598), allowing Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 cities.

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (19)

King Henry III's sister, Margaret (Catholic), would marry Protestant Henry of Navarre. Intended to reconcile Protestants & Catholics, but instead, Huguenot attendees were massacred (St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre).

Many fights occurred between Huguenots & Catholics in French countryside. Huguenots destroyed Catholic images as they didn't believe in sacred images

War in Low Countries & Creation of Netherlands

Charles V (ruler of Habsburgs) abdicated throne in 1556, giving Spain & Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium) to Philip II

Lutherans in Low Countries respected Philip II, but Calvinists hated it as they were taught to oppose ungodly governments

10 southern provinces (Belgium) joined Spain, became Catholic. 7 northern provinces (Netherlands) declared independence, became United Provinces (Calvinist). England helped them gain independence from Spanish

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (20)

King Philip II sent troops to maintain order in Low Countries

King Philip II raised taxes for Calvinists because they hated his government

Calvinists revolted & destroyed Catholic images (iconoclasm)

Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

  • War between Catholics & Protestants of Holy Roman Empire

  • Treaty of Augsburg (1555) was signed between Lutherans & Catholics

    • Allowed each ​German state to choose their own state religion

  • Treaty of Augsburg was deteriorating as people kept converting to other branches of Christianity

  • Lutherans formed Protestant Union (1608), Catholics formed Catholic League (1609)

  • Started out as Catholic Bohemians challenged Protestant rule of Holy Roman Empire

  • War is divided into 4 phases

  • War ended with Peace of Westphalia (1648)

    • Recognized independence of over 300 German states

    • Allowed each state to worship Lutheranism, Calvinism, Catholicism

    • Mostly Northern German states were Protestant & Southern states were Catholic

Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)

Civil War in Bohemia among Protestants & Catholics. Catholics defeated Protestants at Battle of White Mountain (1620)

Danish Phase (1625-1629)

King Christian IV of Denmark led Protestants against Catholics (led by Albrecht Wallenstein). English King Charles I (Protestant) allied against France & Spain but failed. Habsburgs issued edict of Restitution, allowed Catholics to regain land they lost.

Swedish Phase (1630-1635)

Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus supported Protestants. French minister Cardinal Richelieu supported Swedish. Adolphus died in war.

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (21)

French Phase (1635-1648)

French feared Catholic Habsburgs would gain power, so French declared war on Catholic Spain (Spain supported Habsburgs). Peace was achieved in 1648, but Spain was harmed miserably.

Developments Within Catholicism

Council of Trent (1545-1563) & Catholic Counter Reformation

  • Pope Paul III called Council of Trent (1545-1563) to reform Catholic doctrine

    • Sought to reconcile all of Christianity​

    • Banned sale of indulgences

    • Required all bishops to reside in their dioceses

      • Bishops thus can only hold one office, ending practice of pluralism

    • Required stricter education & stricter selection process for clergymen

    • Made scriptures the true source of religious authority

    • Still kept Latin as official language of church

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (22)

Other Developments Within Catholicism

  • Ignatius Loyola founded Society of Jesus (1534)

    • Followers were known as Jesuits

    • Had rigorous training standards

    • Believed in asceticism, seclusion, & prayer

    • Appealed to many people, got many Protestants to convert back to Catholicism

  • Witch-hunting became common

    • People tried & executed those who they believed worshipped the Devil​

    • Believed they wanted to overthrow Christianity

    • People would accuse others whom they believed were witches, mostly women

    • 45,000 supposed witches were executed

    • Witch-hunting was done in mass (witch panics) after a natural disaster

      • People would blame multiple people for horrible things, often because one witch would give the names of other witches

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (23)

Origins of Exploration

Pre-Exploration Situation

  • Trade was popular in Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan trade routes

    • Mongols connected China to the West

    • India & Southeast Asia became wealthy from Indian Ocean

    • West Africa became wealthy from gold trade

  • Before European exploration, Venice & Genoa dominated European trade

    • Venice would acquire luxury goods from the East & trade with the rest of Europe for huge profits

    • Genoa would look west & help with finance

  • Venice & Genoa were crucial for European exploration

    • Venice dominated slavery in Black Sea region​

    • Genoa dominated slavery in North Africa, Iberia, and Canary Islands

    • Both were crucial in bringing slavery to the New World

    • Genoa's finance techniques were used to finance exploration in the New World

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (24)

Causes of Exploration

  • State-sponsored exploration was very common

    • States wanted glory for their nation, so they sponsored voyages of exploration​

  • States wanted to spread Christianity

    • After Spanish reconquista, where they Spanish conquered all non-Catholic kingdoms in Iberia, they wanted to spread Catholicism throughout the world

    • Other Protestant nations wanted to spread their denomination of Christianity

  • Technological innovations made travel easy

    • New ships (caravel, carrack, fluyt) made travel easier as they were sturdier & could withstand rough winds

    • Lateen sail (triangle-shaped) could catch winds on both sides

    • Sternpost rudder helps with maneuverability

    • Astrolabe determines latitude

    • Magnetic compass determines direction

    • Barometer determines air pressure & can detect a storm

    • Other innovations in deciphering wind currents helped sailors take advantage of wind currents

  • Rivalries among European nations sparked exploration

    • European nations wanted to conquer more land than others

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (25)

Exploration

First Explorers

  • Portugal started European exploration

    • It's unique location (facing westward into Atlantic & blocked eastward by Spain) made it necessary for Portuguese to expand westward

    • Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) sponsored voyages down the African west coast

    • Portuguese built trading posts on African west coast & forged alliances with African kingdoms

    • Conquered many African islands in the Atlantic

    • Bartholomew Diaz sailed around Southern Tip of Africa in 1488 but returned immediately to Portugal

    • In 1497, Vasco da Gama sailed around the Southern Tip of Africa to India & came back to Portugal with lots of spices

  • Christopher Columbus sailed westward to Americas in 1492

    • Sponsored by Spanish, sought a westward route to Asia

    • Landed in Bahamas, thought it was Japan

    • Confiscated gold from local Taíno people & enslaved them

    • Sent letters to Spain, Rapidly spread news about the land

    • Still believed the land he found to be Japan or China

  • In 1497, Amerigo Vespucci sailed to Brazil & realized that the land is a New World & isn't Asia

    • Thus, the New World was named America after him

  • Spain wanted a sea route to Maluku spice islands of Southeast Asia, so they employed Ferdinand Magellan

    • In 1519, Magellan sailed through a strait in the tip of South America (now named after him) & died after a physical argument in the Philippines​

    • His crew returned to Spain in 1522

  • Spain continued its expansion in the Americas as it was jealous of Portuguese success in India

  • Jacques Cartier sailed for France & landed in Montreal

    • Traded beaver fur with natives & acquired lots of fish

      • Fish was popular as other meat was prohibited by Church on special days

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (26)

List of Explorers

Name

Sponsor

Year of Journey

Description

Bartholomew Dias

(Video) AP Euro Unit 1 REVIEW (Everything You NEED to Know)

Portugal

1488

First to round the Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip of Africa). Returned home immediately afterward.

Christopher Columbus

Spain

1492

First to land in Americas. Landed in Caribbean islands. Thought theywere some islands near Japan.

Vasco da Gama

Portugal

1497

First to sail to India. Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to India. Returned to Portugal with lots of spices.

John Cabot

England

1497

Sailed for England, arrived in present-day New Foundland.

Amerigo Vespucci

Spain

1499

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (27)

Sailed to South America. First to realize new land is not Asia & is instead a new continent. Named America after Amerigo.

Pedro Alvares Cabral

Portugal

1500

Discovered Brazil, made claims for Portugal there.

Ponce de Leon

Spain

1513

Explored present-day Florida, made claims for Spain there.

Vasco Nuñez de Balboa

Spain

1513

Explored Panama. Found Pacific Ocean when traveling overland from Panama.

Ferdinand Magellan

Spain

1519-1522

First to circumnavigate the world. Sailed through a strait near tip of South America. Died in Philippines, his crew returned to Spain.

Giovanni da Verazzano

France

1524

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (28)

First European to explore North American coast between Florida and New Brunswick (located in present-day Canada).

Jacques Cartier

France

1534

Laid claims for France in Canada. Discovered and sailed through St. Lawrence River.

Sir Francis Drake

Henry Hudson

England

Netherlands

1577-1580

1609

First Englishman to circumnavigate the world. Discovered Tierra del Fuego (tip of South America). Disrupted Spanish Armada.

Tried to find Northwest Passage, sailed through Hudson river to present-day New York City. Named it New Amsterdam.

Colonial Expansion

Conquest of Aztecs

In 1519, Hernan Cortesled Spanish army into Mexico. Entered Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.

Cortes allied with local tribe leaders that resented Aztec rule

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (29)

Smallpox aided Cortes as the native Aztecs weren't immune to it, so many Aztecs died, allowing Cortes to easily take over.

(Video) AP Euro Period 1 Review

Cortes led an army into Tenochtitlan & killed Aztec leader Montezuma (1520)

Cortes plundered Tenochtitlan, starved the city to death. Fully took over in 1521.

Conquest of Incas

In 1532, Francisco Pizarro led Spanish army into Peru

Called all Inca rulers under pretext of a conference. Seized & killed them all except for Inca ruler, Atahualpa

Seized all of Atahualpa's gold, then killed him. Later seized all of Cusco's gold

Allied with local tribal leaders that resented Inca rule. Also used loss of authority from the existingcivil war between ruling brothers Atahualpa & Huascar to seize power. Smallpox also helped him kill the Incas

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (30)

Consolidated control by 1540. Conquered last corner of Inca empire by 1572

Spanish & Portuguese Colonialism

  • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) set rules for Spanish & Portuguese colonization

    • An imaginary line was drawn in Atlantic Ocean: Spain could have all lands west, Portugal could have all lands east​

  • Spain had direct rule over its colonies from the Spanish Crown

    • Two viceroyalties: New Spain (Mexico), New Castile (Peru)

    • Viceroy was Spanish representative to the colonies & governed all colonial affairs

    • Audienciawas a council below the viceroy that would support him & report any power abuses to the king

    • Corregidoreswere local governors that would govern local affairs in parts of colonies

  • Spanish had many innovative labor systems

    • Establishedencomiendasystem, where Spanish encomendoreswould look after indigenous American laborers in exchange for giving them shelter & food

    • Later usedhaciendasystem, where indigenous laborers would work on Spanish plantations

    • In Mit'a system, each village would send 1/7 of its men to Spanish silver mines to work

    • Many indigenous Americans died of overwork

  • Spanish dominated silver trade in Americas

    • Had two silver mines: Zacatecas (Mexico), Potosí (Peru)

    • Would use indigenous & slave labor to work in them

    • Manila galleons would transport silver from Mexico to Philippines, where Spanish would sell them to China for Chinese luxury goods

  • Due to high silver production, Spain had severe inflation

    • Spanish expelled Muslims & Jews during reconquista, which were its best businessmen, which caused Spanish economy to decline​

    • As silver in New World declined, Spain had severe inflation & lost its influence in the New World

    • Spain's wealthy landowners raised rent, causing peasants to leave, leading to lower agricultural production

    • Spanish kings didn't care much about the internal problems, leading to a decline in Spanish power

    • Spain lost Franco-Spanish War & signed Treaty of Pyrenees (1659), giving all extensive territories to France

    • Spain recognized Portuguese independence in 1688

  • Portugal also had direct rule from Portuguese crown

    • Would give land grants to Portuguese nobles to settle in the New World to established Portuguese presence

  • Spanish & Portuguese established Christianity in New World

    • Many Dominican, Franciscan, Jesuit missionaries came

    • Virgin of Guadalupe became a symbol of Christianity in Mexico

      • Formed a Virgin Mary appeared on a hill near Mexico City

    • Some missionaries learned about American native culture to better understand how to teach them Christianity

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (31)

English, French, & DutchColonialism

  • English established many colonies in present-day US

    • First was Roanoke, established in 1585

      • It's settlers lost contact with Britain

    • Virginia was founded in Jamestown in 1607

    • Plymouth was founded by pilgrims onMayflower1620

    • Puritans settled in Massachusetts in 1630

    • Catholics settled in Maryland in 1632

    • Quakers settled in Pennsylvania in 1681

    • Mostly wanted to avoid religious persecution in England

    • Mostly governed by local councils as opposed to direct governance by English crown

  • Samuel de Champlain created permanent French settlement in Quebec in 1608

    • Founded Montreal later on

    • French sailed throughout St. Lawrence river

    • French traded fur with indigenous people

    • French reached Louisiana & Gulf of Mexico via Mississippi River

    • French acquired many colonies & islands in Caribbean & put sugar/tobacco production there

    • French also mostly had local governance instead of direct governance from the French crown

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (32)

Dutch Preeminence in late 1500s

  • Dutch took over Portuguese prestige in Indian Ocean​

    • Dutch ship (fluyt) was faster than Portuguese caravel, so Dutch were able to take over Portuguese ports

    • Dutch East India Company (VOC) was established in 1602

      • Got trading concessions in Indonesia in exchange for assisting local Indonesian kings in shirmishes​

      • Expelled Portuguese from Ceylon & other islands

      • Dominated spice trade

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (33)

Slave Trade

Triangular Trade

Americas

Raw materials cultivated by slaves

Europe

Manufactured goods

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (34)

Slaves

Africa

Slave Treatment in the Americas

  • Europeans allied with African kingdoms to get slaves

    • African kingdoms would raid other kingdoms to capture slaves and would receive guns from Europeans

    • African kingdoms would use these guns to capture more slaves & would then acquire more guns from Europeans

    • The cycle is endless, which caused certain African kingdoms to become super powerful by acquiring guns

  • Slaves first had to travel the middle passage from Africa to Americas

    • Hundreds of slaves crammed into one deck

    • 25% of slaves died in this passage

    • Sick slaves would be thrown overboard to prevent the spread of disease on board

  • In Americas, slaves were forced to do harsh work

    • Often whipped or beaten for working poorly

    • Mortality was high, which caused a greater demand for new slaves from Africa

  • In the Americas, slaves often harmonized their culture with American culture

    • They harmonized African religion with Christianity

    • Harmonized rituals & dances from different parts of Africa among all the slaves they met

  • Ideas about race helped justify slavery

    • Europeans regarded Africans as racially inferior to Europeans, which allowed them to enslave them​

    • Michel de Montaigne & William Shakespeare wrote about topics related to racism

  • Slaves cultivated sugar & other cash crops in Americas

    • Slaves cultivated sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, cotton in Americas, which were all sent to Europe

    • In Europe, some of these were used to make manufactured goods

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (35)

Commercial Revolution

  • Mercantilist principles developed in Europe

    • Mercantilism is the idea that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world

    • The wealth in the world is measured in gold, and Europeans want a higher share of this wealth

  • Joint-stock companies emerged

    • Many merchants would pool their resources to finance enormous trading expeditions to yield huge profits

    • All merchants would share the profits & losses

    • Successful voyages would yield huge profits

    • European governments adopted laws in favor of these merchants

    • Dutch VOC & British East India Company yielded huge profits from trade with India & Indonesia

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (36)

Columbian Exchange

  • Exchange of goods, animals, crops, and diseases from Afro-Eurasia to the Americas
    • First time the ecosystems of Americas & Afro-Eurasia wereconnected

    • Potatoes, maize, squash, tomatoes went from Americas to Afro-Eurasia

      • Led to enriched diet& population growth in Afro-Eurasia

    • Livestock, fruits, sugarcane, disease went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas

  • Disease was one of the most influential things that went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas

    • Indigenous peoples of Americas weren't immune to European diseases→ Died in large numbers

    • Whooping cough, smallpox, measles all killed majority of indigenous American population

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (37)

Worsening Life of Peasants

  • Peasants lived very poor lives

    • Many were landless & lived on shared community farms​

    • Some peasants had their own land & could sell produce on the market

    • Most ate bread for nearly all of their meals

  • Little Ice Age of 1600s led to lower crop yields & famine

  • Monarchs consolidated all power, giving none to peasants

    • Monarchs claimed "divine right" (the idea that god allowed them to rule)

    • Peasants had no voice in government

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (38)

Baroque Art

  • Emotional & exuberant art style

    • Instead of realist works (like Renaissance), they'd glorify & exaggerate certain figures

    • Had lots of emotion, tension, animation, contrast

    • Often glorified monarchs or religious figures

    • Wanted paintings to appeal to the senses of ordinary people instead of only the wealthy (like Renaissance)

  • Baroque art was often used in churches & Catholic buildings

  • Baroque Music came later

    • Johann Sebastian Bach wrote both secular & religious pieces with lots of emotion & tension​

Time Period 1 (1450-1648) | AP European History (39)

Summary

The Italian Renaissance was a revival of ancient Roman classics & the revival of the admiration of human achievements. Humanists would value and portray humans whom they believed were very virtuous & did excellentthings. Also, wealthy people would commission artists to make large works of art for them to depict their power & wealth. New developments in art were the linear perspective (a way to make figures look 3-D on a 2-D surface) and humanist art (the idea of depicting humans in their natural forms without any exaggeration of certain parts). The Northern Renaissance was the spread of Renaissance ideas north of the Alps (throughout Europe), and it was more religious and a revival of ancient religious texts like the New Testament.

In the 16th century, Spain, France, and England became more centralized, setting them up for the Age of Exploration later on. Spain became unified when King Ferdinand married Queen Isabella in 1469, both rulers of large Spanish kingdoms. Ferdinand & Isabella combined their holdings into one unified Spanish state & continued the Spanish inquisition to retake Granada from the Muslims. France started consolidating power after expelling English from the 100 years' war. In England, the kings reconstructed & consolidated the power of the monarchy. All of these set the stage for these 3 nations to become major European powers later on.

The Protestant Reformation started in 1517 when Martin Luther published a pamphlet detailing his opposition to the Catholic church. He believed the Catholic church was corrupt and that true salvation comes directly from God and the Bible instead of through the corrupt church officials of the Catholic church. He created a branch of Christianity called Protestantism, and his followers were known as Lutherans (a sub-branch of Protestantism). John Calvin created Calvinism, where he believed god already chose who will be salvaged and that church & state are interconnected. King Henry VIII created the Anglican Church to consolidate all power in England. The creation of Protestantism led to religious wars in France & the Holy Roman Empire, all ending in peace settlements that give minorities the right to practicetheir religion. The Catholic Church wanted to regain its followers, so at the Council of Trent (1545-1563), it reformed its doctrine. The Catholic Counter Reformation & the creation of the Jesuit order (Catholic) led to some Protestants converting back to Catholicism

Europeans decided to explore the world & conquer more territory for 3 main reasons: They wanted more glory, they wanted a higher share of the wealth in the world (mercantilism), and they wanted to spread Christianity. Portugal, due to its prime location,started exploration by sailing down the West African coast, and Vasco da Gama reached India from Portugal in 1498. Spain also employed Christopher Columbus to sail westward, landing in the Americas (New World) in 1492. Spain conquered the Aztecs & Incas & established viceroyalties there, which were direct governances from the Spanish crown. Similarly, Portugal colonized Brazil & established regional governors there. English, French, and Dutch were mostly seeking the Northwest Passage (a route to Asia via north of Canada), but English made colonies in US East Coast, and French landed in Canada. They intended on using indigenous Americans to perform labor for them, but since most of them died of European diseases, they all used slaves from Africa to work on cash crop plantations in the Americas.

In the 1600s, peasants became poorer due to lower crop yields and the improving lives of the wealthy landowners. The Little Ice Age led to lower crop yields, making peasants really poor. Also, as monarchs consolidated all power, peasants had no voice in government. Meanwhile, baroque art developed, which portrayed the emotion of the artists to glorify certain ruler or gods. It was meant to appeal to ordinary people instead of only the wealthy. It contained lots of emotion, drama, contrast, and tension.

(Video) The History of Europe: Every Year

FAQs

What were the technological factors that contributed to European exploration and expansion from 1450 to 1648? ›

Learning Objective G: Explain the technological factors that facilitated European exploration and expansion from 1450 to 1648. KC-1.3. II Advances in navigation, cartography, and military technology enabled Europeans to establish overseas colonies and empires.

What was one effect of the centralization of political power from 1450 to 1648? ›

“The state centralization by European monarchs between 1450-1648 caused the entire landscape of Europe to become more powerful and well-off: politically, strong leaders such as Louis XIV and Peter the Great improved their countries standing; socially, religion was able to become more centralized and controlled; most ...

What had the most significant effect on state centralization by European monarchs during the period 1450-1648? ›

Evaluate the most significant effect of state centralization by European monarchs during the period 1450-1648 including its role in overseas exploration. The most significant effect of state centralization would be the efficient bureaucracy.

What is Period 1 in AP euro? ›

Period 1: Renaissance, Reformation, and Exploration (1450-1648) In AP® European History, period 1 spans from 1450 to 1648 CE.

What is significant about the year 1450 in Europe? ›

By 1450, Europe saw an increase in literacy, urbanization, and connection to the global community. At one time, the only literate people of Europe were monks and other men tied to the Catholic Church. Gutenberg's printing press will change this. At one time, Europe was closed from trade with the rest of the world.

What reasons were there to cause European expansion in the 1450's? ›

  • Europeans started exploring beyond their known world for various reasons:
  • Trade**
  • Conquest and expansion.
  • Religious conversion.
  • Curiosity.

What were the political changes in Europe during 15th and 16th century? ›

Solution : The political changes that occurred during 15th and 16th centuries were as follows: <br> (i) European kings strengthened their military as well as financial power during 15th and 16th centuries. They created powerful new states. These were much significant for Europe. Economic changes were also occurring.

What were three major reasons for the expansion of Europe to the Americas from 1450 1750? ›

Overview. Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.

What significant event happened in 1648? ›

The Peace of Westphalia, concluded in 1648 in Münster (Germany), ended the Thirty Years' War, which started with an anti-Habsburg revolt in Bohemia in 1618 but became an entanglement of different conflicts concerning the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, religion, and the state system of Europe.

What were the major developments in Europe during the period between 1450 and 1750? ›

These new perspectives led to four massive cultural movements: the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. These revolutions in expression and thought changed the world.

What was the major reason for the expansion of Europe during 1450-1750? ›

Europeans were primarily motivated by money, religion, rivalry, and conquest. If they could find a quicker route to Asia, profits would balloon and religious ideologies would spread. At this time, wealth was measured by how much gold or silver a country had on hand.

What was the central conflict in Europe during the 16th century? ›

The European wars of religion were a series of wars waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe, or Christendom.

What is called 1st period? ›

Your first menstrual period is called menarche. It usually happens around age 12. But it may start earlier or later. Your period is a part of your menstrual cycle.

How long is 1st period? ›

When you first start having your period, it may last only a few days. Your first few periods may be very light. You may only see a few spots of reddish brown blood. Anywhere from 2 to 7 days is normal.

Is a period 1 cycle? ›

The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn't the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years after menstruation begins, long cycles are common.

What happened during the year 1450? ›

1450 The printing press is developed. and spices; Portugal establishes trading posts in Spice Islands (Indonesia). Early 1500s Moghul Empire in India grows to include the entire Indian peninsula. bordering the Indian Ocean, trading with Arab Muslims, India, and China.

Why is 1450 an important year? ›

May 8 – Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI of England. May 9 – Abdal-Latif Mirza, a Timurid dynasty monarch, is assassinated. May 13 – Charles VIII of Sweden, also serving as Carl I of Norway, is declared deposed from the latter throne, in favor of Christian I of Denmark.

Why did Europeans of the 1400s and 1500s want to explore the world? ›

Along with the idea of looking for new trade routes, they also hoped to find new sources of gold, silver, and other valuables. Additionally, Europeans saw exploration as a way to bring Christianity to other cultures that lived in other lands.

How did Europe change after 1450? ›

Social changes occurred in Europe as the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution challenged the power of the Catholic Church and weakened traditional bases of authority, while also creating the conditions for rapid growth in European economies and populations in later centuries.

What was the major purpose of European colonization in the 15th and 16th centuries? ›

The opportunity to make money was one of the primary motivators for the colonization of the New World. The Virginia Company of London established the Jamestown colony to make a profit for its investors. Europe's period of exploration and colonization was fueled largely by necessity.

What was one of the major causes of European exploration starting in the 1400s? ›

Motives for Exploration For early explorers, one of the main motives for exploration was the desire to find new trade routes to Asia. By the 1400s, merchants and Crusaders had brought many goods to Europe from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Demand for these goods increased the desire for trade.

How did Europe change in the 14th and 15th centuries? ›

The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that ended centuries of European stability during the Late Middle Ages. Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instability, and religious upheavals.

Which is the time period of changing ideas in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries? ›

The Renaissance, roughly spanning the 14th to 17th centuries, marked a time of cultural, intellectual and scientific advances.

What was the 16th century known for in Europe? ›

The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. By 1500 the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation.

What were the 3 reasons Europeans moved to the Americas? ›

The three main causes were a rapid increase in population, class rule and economic modernization.

What are the 3 major factors that drove European imperialism? ›

The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, its abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution.

What changed in the period of 1450 1750 that changed interactions between African and European states? ›

The slave trade changed the power dynamics on the African continent, first between native Africans and later between Africans and Europeans.

Why was 1648 a turning point in European history? ›

The Thirty Years' War, from 1618-1648, represented a major turning point in European history due to the consequences of the war which include the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, the destruction of Germany, and France becoming the dominant power in Europe.

What event that took place in 1618 1648 has precipitated the rise of the international system dominated by nation states? ›

Thirty Years' War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.

What changed for Europeans as a result of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648? ›

As a result of the Treaty of Westphalia, the Netherlands gained independence from Spain, Sweden gained control of the Baltic and France was acknowledged as the preeminent Western power. The power of the Holy Roman Emperor was broken and the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands.

What was happening in the world from 1450 to 1750? ›

The era between 1450 and 1750 saw the appearance of several land-based empires who built their power on the use of gunpowder: the Ottomans and the Safavids in Southwest Asia , the Mughals in India , the Ming and Qing in China , and the new Russian Empire.

What are the 10 most significant events from the 1450 1700 period? ›

1450-1700: The Major European Events
  • 1492: Columbus Discovers the New World.
  • Mercantilism and the East India Companies:
  • 1455: The Printing Press.
  • 1517: 95 Theses.
  • Spanish Conquistadors in South America.
  • Leonardo Da Vinci.
  • William Shakespeare Born: 1564.
  • 1453: The Fall of Constantinople.

What are the three periods of European history? ›

The history of Europe is traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe (prior to about 800 BC), classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

What is the most important development of the early modern period between 1450 CE and 1750 CE? ›

The interconnection of the Eastern and Western hemispheres made possible by transoceanic voyaging marked a key transformation of this period. Technological innovations helped to make transoceanic connections possible.

What was the era between 1400 and 1750 when Europeans made major changes to their economies due to new exploration called? ›

The 14th and 15th centuries were centuries of dramatic change across Europe. The Renaissance, which means rebirth in Italian, was a European cultural movement that led to many of those changes.

What major events happened in Europe in the 1600s? ›

1600s, Age of Religious Wars and Absolutism
  • Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648.
  • English Civil War, 1642–1649.
  • Age of Science.
  • Age of Absolutism, epitomized by Louis XIV, "Sun King"
  • Stuart Dynasty in England, starting with James I and resulting in Glorious Revolution.
  • Peter the Great of Russia.
  • Rise of Prussia.

Which movement started in Europe in the 16th century? ›

The establishment of rationalist thinking led to an important turn of events in Europe in the 15th and 16th century. It witnessed the Renaissance movement which transformed contemporary literature, art, and philosophy.

What were the causes of European expansion in the 16th century? ›

Overview. Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.

What are the four types of periods? ›

The four phases of the menstrual cycle are menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase.

What is a girl's first period like? ›

A girl's first period is usually very light, with sometimes only spotting or very little blood. The typical menstrual cycle is 28 days long, but periods are often irregular during the first few years of menstruation.

What is the first period called? ›

Your first menstrual period is called menarche. It usually happens around age 12. But it may start earlier or later. Your period is a part of your menstrual cycle.

Is a girls first period heavy? ›

The first period often is very heavy and painful. Ovulation, or the process of making an egg, helps make a “normal” period. Unfortunately, many girls do not ovulate in the beginning, resulting in heavy bleeding. Some girls also may have a bleeding problem that shows up when they start having periods.

Is day 1 the start of period? ›

The first day of a woman's period is day 1 of the menstrual cycle. "Periods last around 2 to 7 days, and women lose about 3 to 5 tablespoons of blood in a period," says Belfield.

What were the technological reasons for European exploration? ›

New technology also paved the way for European voyages and exploration. Better maps showed the directions of ocean currents and lines of latitude. Inventions like the astrolabe and magnetic compass improved navigation.

What were the 3 technologies that made European exploration easier? ›

Three tools are of particular importance to this time period: lateen sails, the astrolabe, and the magnetic compass. Lateen sails were triangular sails which allowed ships to sail directly into the wind, versus the formerly used square sails that did not allow ships to sail into the wind.

What new technologies contributed to European exploration and expansion? ›

The five major advancements of the Age of Exploration were the astrolabe, magnetic compass, caravel, sextant and Mercator's projection.

How did technological advancements contribute to European expansion? ›

The astrolabe, another navigational tool, allowed sailors to use the position of the sun and the stars to determine latitude. These inventions fueled the spirit of exploration and allowed Europeans to dominate travel, trade, and naval operations among the continents.

What was invented in 1450? ›

The Greatest Invention

In 1450 Johann Gutenberg (c. 1398-1468) changed the world forever when he invented movable type. Gutenberg's printing press enabled the rapid duplication of pages of text (and numbers and symbols).

What was the biggest impact of Age of Exploration? ›

Geography The Age of Exploration caused ideas, technology, plants, and animals to be exchanged around the world. Government Several European countries competed for colonies overseas, both in Asia and the Americas. Economics Developments during the Age of Exploration led to the origins of modern capitalism.

When did European Exploration take place? ›

The Age of Exploration (also called the Age of Discovery) began in the 1400s and continued through the 1600s. It was a period of time when the European nations began exploring the world.

Why did European explorers go to the Americas in the late 1400s? ›

Along with the idea of looking for new trade routes, they also hoped to find new sources of gold, silver, and other valuables. Additionally, Europeans saw exploration as a way to bring Christianity to other cultures that lived in other lands.

Which invention is most associated with the European Age of Exploration? ›

The Age of Exploration was rooted in new technologies and ideas growing out of the Renaissance, these included advances in cartography, navigation, and shipbuilding. The most important development was the invention of first the Carrack and then caravel in Iberia.

What were the major technology of Europe in middle period? ›

The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder, the invention of vertical windmills, spectacles, mechanical clocks, and greatly improved water mills, building techniques (Gothic architecture, medieval castles), and agriculture in general (three-field crop rotation).

What are the 4 main reasons for European Exploration of the New World? ›

Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power. At different times and in different places, different motives are dominant.

How did the Columbian Exchange affect the lives of people in the 1500s? ›

This included the rise of the Atlantic slave trade and other labor systems. The Columbian Exchange also had some unintentional but devastating results due to the transfer of diseases. Horrific epidemics, some far worse than the Black Death in both their severity and lasting effects, were enabled by exchange.

What major developments drove European expansion? ›

The hemispheric dissemination of goods and knowledge not only sparked the Renaissance but fueled long-term European expansion. Asian goods flooded European markets, creating a demand for new commodities. This trade created vast new wealth, and Europeans battled one another for trade supremacy.

What are the three developments that transformed Europe? ›

Europe is known not only for its revolutions and wars but also for its sociocultural changes, including the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and colonialism. The effects of these changes can still be seen in the world today.

What was invented in 1400s? ›

Late 1400s: The Parachute, Flying Machines, and Whiskey

Others, such as the globe, helped humans navigate the world, and whiskey became a popular drink in the U.S. and worldwide. 1486: In Venice, the first known copyright was granted. 1485: Da Vinci designed the first parachute. 1487: Bell chimes were invented.

What technology helped Europeans colonize more rapidly? ›

The development of steam-powered ships greatly assisted European powers that sought to extend their empires in Africa and Asia. Europeans had enjoyed a virtual monopoly on sea travel since the first imperial expansion began in the 1500s, but this only extended to the coasts.

Videos

1. Medieval Europe: Crash Course European History #1
(CrashCourse)
2. The ITALIAN Renaissance, EXPLAINED [AP Euro, Unit 1 Topic 2 (1.2)]
(Heimler's History)
3. The Renaissance and Exploration (AP European History: Unit 1)
(Marco Learning)
4. AP Euro Flip #1! Foundations of European History, Defining what came before "Modern Europe"
(Mr. Terry's Flipped Classroom)
5. European EXPLORATION and EMPIRE-BUILDING [AP Euro, Unit 1 Topic 6 (1.6)]
(Heimler's History)
6. APEURO Period 1 (1450-1648) The Age of Exploration and Expansion
(Grant Mollett)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Frankie Dare

Last Updated: 09/29/2022

Views: 6422

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (73 voted)

Reviews: 88% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Frankie Dare

Birthday: 2000-01-27

Address: Suite 313 45115 Caridad Freeway, Port Barabaraville, MS 66713

Phone: +3769542039359

Job: Sales Manager

Hobby: Baton twirling, Stand-up comedy, Leather crafting, Rugby, tabletop games, Jigsaw puzzles, Air sports

Introduction: My name is Frankie Dare, I am a funny, beautiful, proud, fair, pleasant, cheerful, enthusiastic person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.