Time Period 1: 1450- 1648
Age of Exploration
Developments in Europe in 1600s
Merchants became really wealthy & led comfortable lives
Florence was the wealthiest city-state
Most merchants were wealthy bankers
Most Northern Italian states were known as communes
Ruled by a few wealthy merchants (oligarchy)
Only wealthy merchants or people who lived their for a long time could afford to stay
Merchants regulated everything, nobles didn't have much power
These wealthy merchant rulers built huge courts to display their wealth
Important ceremonies would happen there
Renaissance created a strong attachment to one city, leading to the growth of major city-states
Larger Italian city-states were dominating & absorbing the smaller ones
Venice, Milan, Papal States (Rome), Naples, & Florence were most powerful states
Venice was ruled by merchant oligarchy
Milan was ruled by Sforza family
Spanish Kingdom ofAragon ruled Naples
Medici family ruled Florence
Dominican Friar Girolamo Savanarola expelled Medicis from Florence
Believed Medicis were corrupt as they were secular & corrupt
Savanarola organized government according to Christian standards
Pope excommunicated him & Medicis retook power as Florentines became tired of his rule
Origins of Renaissance
Renaissance refers to a "rebirth" of human achievements & ancient literature
Giorgio Vasari first coined the word "Renaissance"
Humanism refers to the study of human achievements
Francesco Petrarch uncovered ancient Roman texts, believed those to be valuable
Studied Cicero, enjoyed his elegant writing & use of Latin language
Petrarch's revival of ancient Latin classics was known as humanism
Believed humans lay in between God & material world
Marsilio Ficino believed Plato was precursor of Christ
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola believed humans that to excellentthings have virtú (virtue)
Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man, detailing how being a man is a really good thing
Believed instudying things in their ideal form
Believed education was for the public good as opposed to for private or religious purposes
Believed all men should be educated in Latin classics & humanist thought
Didn't believe women should be educated as much
Baldassare Castiglione wroteThe Courtier(1528), believed men should be educated to gain a higher place in society
Niccolo Machiavelli wroteThe Prince(1532)
Believed rulers should be wise & must preserve security
Believed rulers can do brutal things to maintain power but shouldn't do anything for personal pleasure
Printing Press & How it Helped Renaissance
Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440s
Used stamps to print letters just like stamps would print symbols on jewelry
More books were disseminated via printing press
Renaissance thinkers spread their ideas via books
More literacy (because more schools opened) led to a larger audience for books
Books were written for secular purposes as well
Print houses became common
Many people opened these to disseminate the latest Renaissance books
People gathered in print houses to discuss the books
Literate people would read to illiterate people
Spread of Renaissance Ideals & Renaissance Art
Renaissance ideals were shown via art
Urban groups & wealthy people commissioned famous artists to make works of art
Filippo Brunelleschi designed the Florence dome
Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel of Vatican City, commissioned by Pope Julius II
Art showed human ideals as opposed to spiritual ideals
Giotto started by sculpting/painting realhuman figuresinstead of exaggeratedbody parts
Filippo Brunelleschi also developed linear perspective
This can create 3-D depictions on a 2-D surface
Piera della Francesca used linear perspective in his works
Donatello sculpted accurate human figures to represent balance instead of exaggeration
Artists were patronized for their artistic styles
Most artists were trained in workshops
Women rarely received full training like men
Major Renaissance People & Works
First person to coin the term "Renaissance." Means "rebirth."
Created humanist thought, Revived ancient Roman classics, promoted the study of human achievements (humanism).
Studied Plato, believed Platonic teachings to be the precursor to Christianity.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
WroteOration on the Dignity of Man, believed mankind is good & men (especially virtuous men) are good people.
WroteThe Courtier, believed men should be educated in order to gain a high status in society. Didn't women should be as educated.
WroteThe Prince, believed rulers should be wise & can use brutal tactics to maintain rule but not for personal pleasure.
English Northern Renaissance thinker. Wrote Utopia, believed there lay a utopian land where poverty doesn't exist & all men get humanist education.
Northern Renaissance thinker from Rotterdam. Believed the church should have a Renaissance, promoted reading the Bible & ancient Christian texts.
Commissioned by wealthy Florentine merchants to make the Florence dome. Known for developing idea of linear perspective.
Giotto & Donatello
Made sculptures that depict actual human figures as opposed to exaggerated human figures.
Piero della Francesca
Famous for using linear perspective in his works.
German Northern Renaissance thinker. Made woodcuts (mechanical devices) to aid other artists in using linear perspective.
Northern Renaissance was the spread of Renaissance ideals throughout Europe (north of Italy)
Some Northern Renaissance thinkers combined Christianity with Humanism
Believed classical values of patience & calmness combine with Christian values of love & faith
Thomas More (England) published Utopia(1516)
Believed there lay a utopian land where everyone receives humanist education,& poverty is solved
Desiderius Erasmus (Rotterdam) wrote scholarly books to harmonize humanism with Christianity
Believed in inner morality rather than Scholastic theology
Believed the church should have a renaissance
Promoted reading the Bible & Christian texts
TranslatedNew Testamentinto Latin
Northern Renaissance art used oil paintings & wood panels
Albrecht Dürer created woodcuts & other mechanical devices to help artists with linear perspective
Mannerismdeveloped, where people used oil paintings to exaggerate certain body parts or expressions
Society During Renaissance Time
Slavery was somewhat common
Africans were regarded as inferior & many Europeans kept Africans as slaves
Started in Ancient Rome, but local authorities banned slavery later on
Slavery continued later, having slaves signified wealth
Most hierarchies were based on wealth
Wealthy merchants lived in large houses & sometimes gained political power
Still, nobles had higher social status than commoners
People did things for honor, regardless of the wealth it provided
Women were regarded as inferior to men
Many philosophers wondered why women were inferior
Unmarried men were inferior to married men
Women needed to be married as they couldn't support a family with their small wage
This gender arrangement was the most natural hierarchical arrangement in society
Before 1469, Spain was divided into multiple kingdoms
In 1469, King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella of Castile
Partially unified Spain
In 1478, Ferdinand & Isabella launched the Spanish Inquisition, a government program intended to attack all non-Catholics
Through Spanish Inquisition, they conquered Muslim Kingdom of Granada in 1492
Thus, Spain was completely unified under Catholic rule. End of Spanish Inquisition
Many Jews came to Spain as France & England expelled all their Jews
Jews were really good in business
High Jewish population led to many Anti-Semitic programs to expel the Jews
Most Jews converted, but Spanish Catholics believed they weren't pure Catholics (they still had "Jewish blood")
Thus, 75% of Jews in Spain fled
Isabella & Ferdinand's daughter married King of Netherlands & Holy Roman Empire, so their son, Charles V or Habsburgs, had a huge inherited realm (Spain, Netherlands, Germany, etc.)
After 100 Years' War with English, King Charles VII started consolidating French rule. He expelled the English
Charles VII's son, Louis XI, improved French army & conquered Burgundy
Louis XI's son, Louis XII, married Anne of Brittany, bringing Duchy of Brittany into French realm
Louis XII's son, Francis I, signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X, allowing Francis I to elect French bishops.
During reign of Henry IV, aristocrats in government fought for power. Henry VI took power later, which weakened power of monarchy
Edward IV of York helped reconstruct the English monarchy. Heused methods suggested by Machiavelli inThe Prince(cruelty, wisdom, etc.).
Henry VII distrusted nobles & kept small landowners in government positions
Martin Luther & Creation of Protestantism
- Martin Luther, a theology professor at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, believed the Catholic church was corrupt
What was Wrong with the Church?
Luther believed people go to heaven by way of god rather than through the Catholic church
Luther hated the sale of indulgences (Catholic church sold forgivenesses of sins to people)
Luther hated that the Bible was only available in Latin as opposed to regional and common languages
Hated pluralism (a practice where some clergymen held multiple leadership positions)
Hover for the Answer
In 1517, Luther wrote95 Theses, a pamphlet with 95 arguments against the church & nailed it to the door of Wittenberg Church
Pope Leo X excommunicated him in 1520
At Diet of Worms (1521), Luther refused to recant his ideas
Luther's refusal to recant his ideas led more people to hear about his ideas
Protestant Church was created at Diet of Speyer (1529)
Believed god initiated salvation
Religious authority rest in the Bible alone
Only approved religious practices that can be supported by the Bible or other scriptures
The Sacraments were rejected as the scriptures didn't write about them
Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss man, helped Luther spread his ideas
Believed in only using the New Testament, as it contained the true words of god
Spread of Protestant Reformation
Appeal of Protestantism
Protestant ideals spread quickly via the printing press
Humanists liked Protestantism because of its idea of leading simple lives based on faith
Luther & Zwingli appointed pastors in local cities to help spread Protestantism
A group known as "Radicals" wanted a religious institution separate from state & mounted revolts
Known as anabaptists as they baptized adults
Didn't believe in a state church, wanted church to be separate from state
Peasants got angry due to crop failures & confiscation of property by government, so they led a massive rebellion
They wanted church-state separation
Government crushed this, 75,000 died
Protestants believed all women should be married
Hated prostitution, forced brothels to close
Believed clergymen should marry, and their wives would have respectable positions as pastors' wives
Believed marriage represents spiritual equality of men & women
Forced monasteries/covenants to close
Women could not be members of clergy
Charles V, ruler of Habsburg domain,signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Charles V acquired this land through family marriages, ruled large area from Austria to Spain
Called Diet of Augsburg (1550) to promote Catholicism & stop religious division
Protestants mounted coalition against him, so he signed Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Allowed each state to choose its own religion (Catholicism or Lutheranism)
Protestantism appealed in Scandinavia
King Christian III of Denmark-Norway (union of the two states) adopted Lutheranism
Spread easily in Denmark & slowly in Norway & Iceland
King Gustav I of Sweden adopted Lutheranism
Later altered Lutheran doctrine slightly to create their own church
Czechs in Bohemia first partially embraced Lutheranism but then reconverted to Catholicism
Poland-Lithuania (joint government) first initially had some converts to Lutheranism & Calvinism, but later reverted to Catholicism after counter reformation
Hungarians hated Germans so they didn't embrace Protestantism
After Ottoman invasion of Hungary, part of Hungary became Lutheran
In late 1600s when Ottomans retreated & Habsburgs retook power, Catholicism became dominant again
Creation of Anglican Church
King Henry VIII created Church of England
Was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter of rulers of Spain
Catherine was the widow of Henry VIII's brother, but their marriage was against Christian law
Catherine's nephew, Charles V (Habsburg ruler), besieged Rome & kept Pope Clement VII as a prisoner, but Charles V disapproved the divorce
Thus, Henry VIII proclaimed autonomy from papal authority & created Anglican Church
Had some Catholic elements like ornate ceremonies, hierarchical clergy, but was mostly Protestant
Confiscated property of monasteries & distributed them to upper class
Irish were Catholic & England had some rule over Ireland
Irish Catholics revolted, but English confiscated their land & forced them to convert
Thomas Cranmer (archbishop of Canterbury) wroteBook of Common Prayer(1549), which became official book of Anglican Church
Creation of Puritan Church & Post-Anglican England
After King Henry VIII's death, Mary of Tudor (Henry VIII's daughter with Catherine of Aragon) took power in England
Mary of Tudor married a Catholic, so Anglicans went to exile in mainland Europe
Other Anglicans in England assassinated Mary of Tudor
Elizabeth altered the Anglican doctrine to something between Puritan& Catholic ideologies, but it was more Protestant than before
Anglicans in exile came back to England, created Puritan church (wanted to purify Anglicanism of all its Catholic elements)
Elizabeth (King Henry VIII's daughter with his other wife) took over & became monarch
Spanish Armada (1588)
King Philip II of Spain married Mary of Tudor, hoping to make England Catholic
This plan ended when Mary of Tudor was assassinated by Anglicans
Another Mary, Queen of Scotland, (a Catholic) had another opportunity to kill Elizabeth. She was Elizabeth's cousin
English troops easily defeated Spanish armada, forcing them to retaliate
Philip II then sent navy troops (Spanish Armada) to England to restore Catholicism there (1588)
Elizabeth imprisoned Mary of Scotland, and English later executed Mary of Scotland
Creation of Calvinism
John Calvin converted to Protestantism, created his own denomination of Protestantism in Geneva
Believed God had chosen a group of people for salvation (an idea known aspredestination)
That group was known as "the elect"
Believed that people should work hard as it portrays that they were among "the elect"
Believed all sovereignty is in god, no importance for human beings
Executed all heretics to Calvinism
Scotland later created Presbyterian Church, modeled on Calvinism
Many Scottish nobles supported Protestantism while the king & queen were Catholic
Scottish man John Knox convinced Scottish Parliament to abandon papal authority
Wanted religious leadership of a council of ministers (known as Presbyters)
Created Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which was Calvinist & had a simple doctrine
Religious War in France
King Francis I of France needed to raise taxes to pay for Habsburg-Valois wars. Signed Concordat of Bologna (1516) with Pope Leo X to gain ability to appoint French clergymen himself
Calvinism became popular among French nobility. Gained popularity in countryside. French Protestants were known as Huguenots
King Henry II died in 1559, so his 3 sons took over & had weak leadership. French nobles adopted Calvinism to weaken French rule. King Henry III became main leader among the 3 sons
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) took over after Henry III died. Issued Edict of Nantes (1598), allowing Huguenots to practice their religion in 150 cities.
King Henry III's sister, Margaret (Catholic), would marry Protestant Henry of Navarre. Intended to reconcile Protestants & Catholics, but instead, Huguenot attendees were massacred (St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre).
Many fights occurred between Huguenots & Catholics in French countryside. Huguenots destroyed Catholic images as they didn't believe in sacred images
War in Low Countries & Creation of Netherlands
Charles V (ruler of Habsburgs) abdicated throne in 1556, giving Spain & Low Countries (Netherlands, Belgium) to Philip II
Lutherans in Low Countries respected Philip II, but Calvinists hated it as they were taught to oppose ungodly governments
10 southern provinces (Belgium) joined Spain, became Catholic. 7 northern provinces (Netherlands) declared independence, became United Provinces (Calvinist). England helped them gain independence from Spanish
King Philip II sent troops to maintain order in Low Countries
King Philip II raised taxes for Calvinists because they hated his government
Calvinists revolted & destroyed Catholic images (iconoclasm)
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
War between Catholics & Protestants of Holy Roman Empire
Treaty of Augsburg (1555) was signed between Lutherans & Catholics
Allowed each German state to choose their own state religion
Treaty of Augsburg was deteriorating as people kept converting to other branches of Christianity
Lutherans formed Protestant Union (1608), Catholics formed Catholic League (1609)
Started out as Catholic Bohemians challenged Protestant rule of Holy Roman Empire
War is divided into 4 phases
War ended with Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Recognized independence of over 300 German states
Allowed each state to worship Lutheranism, Calvinism, Catholicism
Mostly Northern German states were Protestant & Southern states were Catholic
Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
Civil War in Bohemia among Protestants & Catholics. Catholics defeated Protestants at Battle of White Mountain (1620)
Danish Phase (1625-1629)
King Christian IV of Denmark led Protestants against Catholics (led by Albrecht Wallenstein). English King Charles I (Protestant) allied against France & Spain but failed. Habsburgs issued edict of Restitution, allowed Catholics to regain land they lost.
Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus supported Protestants. French minister Cardinal Richelieu supported Swedish. Adolphus died in war.
French Phase (1635-1648)
French feared Catholic Habsburgs would gain power, so French declared war on Catholic Spain (Spain supported Habsburgs). Peace was achieved in 1648, but Spain was harmed miserably.
Developments Within Catholicism
Council of Trent (1545-1563) & Catholic Counter Reformation
Pope Paul III called Council of Trent (1545-1563) to reform Catholic doctrine
Sought to reconcile all of Christianity
Banned sale of indulgences
Required all bishops to reside in their dioceses
Bishops thus can only hold one office, ending practice of pluralism
Required stricter education & stricter selection process for clergymen
Made scriptures the true source of religious authority
Still kept Latin as official language of church
Other Developments Within Catholicism
Ignatius Loyola founded Society of Jesus (1534)
Followers were known as Jesuits
Had rigorous training standards
Believed in asceticism, seclusion, & prayer
Appealed to many people, got many Protestants to convert back to Catholicism
Witch-hunting became common
People tried & executed those who they believed worshipped the Devil
Believed they wanted to overthrow Christianity
People would accuse others whom they believed were witches, mostly women
45,000 supposed witches were executed
Witch-hunting was done in mass (witch panics) after a natural disaster
People would blame multiple people for horrible things, often because one witch would give the names of other witches
Origins of Exploration
Trade was popular in Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan trade routes
Mongols connected China to the West
India & Southeast Asia became wealthy from Indian Ocean
West Africa became wealthy from gold trade
Before European exploration, Venice & Genoa dominated European trade
Venice would acquire luxury goods from the East & trade with the rest of Europe for huge profits
Genoa would look west & help with finance
Venice & Genoa were crucial for European exploration
Venice dominated slavery in Black Sea region
Genoa dominated slavery in North Africa, Iberia, and Canary Islands
Both were crucial in bringing slavery to the New World
Genoa's finance techniques were used to finance exploration in the New World
Causes of Exploration
State-sponsored exploration was very common
States wanted glory for their nation, so they sponsored voyages of exploration
States wanted to spread Christianity
After Spanish reconquista, where they Spanish conquered all non-Catholic kingdoms in Iberia, they wanted to spread Catholicism throughout the world
Other Protestant nations wanted to spread their denomination of Christianity
Technological innovations made travel easy
New ships (caravel, carrack, fluyt) made travel easier as they were sturdier & could withstand rough winds
Lateen sail (triangle-shaped) could catch winds on both sides
Sternpost rudder helps with maneuverability
Astrolabe determines latitude
Magnetic compass determines direction
Barometer determines air pressure & can detect a storm
Other innovations in deciphering wind currents helped sailors take advantage of wind currents
Rivalries among European nations sparked exploration
European nations wanted to conquer more land than others
Portugal started European exploration
It's unique location (facing westward into Atlantic & blocked eastward by Spain) made it necessary for Portuguese to expand westward
Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator) sponsored voyages down the African west coast
Portuguese built trading posts on African west coast & forged alliances with African kingdoms
Conquered many African islands in the Atlantic
Bartholomew Diaz sailed around Southern Tip of Africa in 1488 but returned immediately to Portugal
In 1497, Vasco da Gama sailed around the Southern Tip of Africa to India & came back to Portugal with lots of spices
Christopher Columbus sailed westward to Americas in 1492
Sponsored by Spanish, sought a westward route to Asia
Landed in Bahamas, thought it was Japan
Confiscated gold from local Taíno people & enslaved them
Sent letters to Spain, Rapidly spread news about the land
Still believed the land he found to be Japan or China
In 1497, Amerigo Vespucci sailed to Brazil & realized that the land is a New World & isn't Asia
Thus, the New World was named America after him
Spain wanted a sea route to Maluku spice islands of Southeast Asia, so they employed Ferdinand Magellan
In 1519, Magellan sailed through a strait in the tip of South America (now named after him) & died after a physical argument in the Philippines
His crew returned to Spain in 1522
Spain continued its expansion in the Americas as it was jealous of Portuguese success in India
Jacques Cartier sailed for France & landed in Montreal
Traded beaver fur with natives & acquired lots of fish
Fish was popular as other meat was prohibited by Church on special days
List of Explorers
Year of Journey
First to round the Cape of Good Hope (Southern tip of Africa). Returned home immediately afterward.
First to land in Americas. Landed in Caribbean islands. Thought theywere some islands near Japan.
Vasco da Gama
First to sail to India. Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope to India. Returned to Portugal with lots of spices.
Sailed for England, arrived in present-day New Foundland.
Sailed to South America. First to realize new land is not Asia & is instead a new continent. Named America after Amerigo.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Discovered Brazil, made claims for Portugal there.
Ponce de Leon
Explored present-day Florida, made claims for Spain there.
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
Explored Panama. Found Pacific Ocean when traveling overland from Panama.
First to circumnavigate the world. Sailed through a strait near tip of South America. Died in Philippines, his crew returned to Spain.
Giovanni da Verazzano
First European to explore North American coast between Florida and New Brunswick (located in present-day Canada).
Laid claims for France in Canada. Discovered and sailed through St. Lawrence River.
Sir Francis Drake
First Englishman to circumnavigate the world. Discovered Tierra del Fuego (tip of South America). Disrupted Spanish Armada.
Tried to find Northwest Passage, sailed through Hudson river to present-day New York City. Named it New Amsterdam.
Conquest of Aztecs
In 1519, Hernan Cortesled Spanish army into Mexico. Entered Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Cortes allied with local tribe leaders that resented Aztec rule
Smallpox aided Cortes as the native Aztecs weren't immune to it, so many Aztecs died, allowing Cortes to easily take over.
Cortes led an army into Tenochtitlan & killed Aztec leader Montezuma (1520)
Cortes plundered Tenochtitlan, starved the city to death. Fully took over in 1521.
Conquest of Incas
In 1532, Francisco Pizarro led Spanish army into Peru
Called all Inca rulers under pretext of a conference. Seized & killed them all except for Inca ruler, Atahualpa
Seized all of Atahualpa's gold, then killed him. Later seized all of Cusco's gold
Allied with local tribal leaders that resented Inca rule. Also used loss of authority from the existingcivil war between ruling brothers Atahualpa & Huascar to seize power. Smallpox also helped him kill the Incas
Consolidated control by 1540. Conquered last corner of Inca empire by 1572
Spanish & Portuguese Colonialism
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) set rules for Spanish & Portuguese colonization
An imaginary line was drawn in Atlantic Ocean: Spain could have all lands west, Portugal could have all lands east
Spain had direct rule over its colonies from the Spanish Crown
Two viceroyalties: New Spain (Mexico), New Castile (Peru)
Viceroy was Spanish representative to the colonies & governed all colonial affairs
Audienciawas a council below the viceroy that would support him & report any power abuses to the king
Corregidoreswere local governors that would govern local affairs in parts of colonies
Spanish had many innovative labor systems
Establishedencomiendasystem, where Spanish encomendoreswould look after indigenous American laborers in exchange for giving them shelter & food
Later usedhaciendasystem, where indigenous laborers would work on Spanish plantations
In Mit'a system, each village would send 1/7 of its men to Spanish silver mines to work
Many indigenous Americans died of overwork
Spanish dominated silver trade in Americas
Had two silver mines: Zacatecas (Mexico), Potosí (Peru)
Would use indigenous & slave labor to work in them
Manila galleons would transport silver from Mexico to Philippines, where Spanish would sell them to China for Chinese luxury goods
Due to high silver production, Spain had severe inflation
Spanish expelled Muslims & Jews during reconquista, which were its best businessmen, which caused Spanish economy to decline
As silver in New World declined, Spain had severe inflation & lost its influence in the New World
Spain's wealthy landowners raised rent, causing peasants to leave, leading to lower agricultural production
Spanish kings didn't care much about the internal problems, leading to a decline in Spanish power
Spain lost Franco-Spanish War & signed Treaty of Pyrenees (1659), giving all extensive territories to France
Spain recognized Portuguese independence in 1688
Portugal also had direct rule from Portuguese crown
Would give land grants to Portuguese nobles to settle in the New World to established Portuguese presence
Spanish & Portuguese established Christianity in New World
Many Dominican, Franciscan, Jesuit missionaries came
Virgin of Guadalupe became a symbol of Christianity in Mexico
Formed a Virgin Mary appeared on a hill near Mexico City
Some missionaries learned about American native culture to better understand how to teach them Christianity
English, French, & DutchColonialism
English established many colonies in present-day US
First was Roanoke, established in 1585
It's settlers lost contact with Britain
Virginia was founded in Jamestown in 1607
Plymouth was founded by pilgrims onMayflower1620
Puritans settled in Massachusetts in 1630
Catholics settled in Maryland in 1632
Quakers settled in Pennsylvania in 1681
Mostly wanted to avoid religious persecution in England
Mostly governed by local councils as opposed to direct governance by English crown
Samuel de Champlain created permanent French settlement in Quebec in 1608
Founded Montreal later on
French sailed throughout St. Lawrence river
French traded fur with indigenous people
French reached Louisiana & Gulf of Mexico via Mississippi River
French acquired many colonies & islands in Caribbean & put sugar/tobacco production there
French also mostly had local governance instead of direct governance from the French crown
Dutch Preeminence in late 1500s
Dutch took over Portuguese prestige in Indian Ocean
Dutch ship (fluyt) was faster than Portuguese caravel, so Dutch were able to take over Portuguese ports
Dutch East India Company (VOC) was established in 1602
Got trading concessions in Indonesia in exchange for assisting local Indonesian kings in shirmishes
Expelled Portuguese from Ceylon & other islands
Dominated spice trade
Raw materials cultivated by slaves
Slave Treatment in the Americas
Europeans allied with African kingdoms to get slaves
African kingdoms would raid other kingdoms to capture slaves and would receive guns from Europeans
African kingdoms would use these guns to capture more slaves & would then acquire more guns from Europeans
The cycle is endless, which caused certain African kingdoms to become super powerful by acquiring guns
Slaves first had to travel the middle passage from Africa to Americas
Hundreds of slaves crammed into one deck
25% of slaves died in this passage
Sick slaves would be thrown overboard to prevent the spread of disease on board
In Americas, slaves were forced to do harsh work
Often whipped or beaten for working poorly
Mortality was high, which caused a greater demand for new slaves from Africa
In the Americas, slaves often harmonized their culture with American culture
They harmonized African religion with Christianity
Harmonized rituals & dances from different parts of Africa among all the slaves they met
Ideas about race helped justify slavery
Europeans regarded Africans as racially inferior to Europeans, which allowed them to enslave them
Michel de Montaigne & William Shakespeare wrote about topics related to racism
Slaves cultivated sugar & other cash crops in Americas
Slaves cultivated sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, cotton in Americas, which were all sent to Europe
In Europe, some of these were used to make manufactured goods
Mercantilist principles developed in Europe
Mercantilism is the idea that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world
The wealth in the world is measured in gold, and Europeans want a higher share of this wealth
Joint-stock companies emerged
Many merchants would pool their resources to finance enormous trading expeditions to yield huge profits
All merchants would share the profits & losses
Successful voyages would yield huge profits
European governments adopted laws in favor of these merchants
Dutch VOC & British East India Company yielded huge profits from trade with India & Indonesia
- Exchange of goods, animals, crops, and diseases from Afro-Eurasia to the Americas
First time the ecosystems of Americas & Afro-Eurasia wereconnected
Potatoes, maize, squash, tomatoes went from Americas to Afro-Eurasia
Led to enriched diet& population growth in Afro-Eurasia
Livestock, fruits, sugarcane, disease went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas
Disease was one of the most influential things that went from Afro-Eurasia to Americas
Indigenous peoples of Americas weren't immune to European diseases→ Died in large numbers
Whooping cough, smallpox, measles all killed majority of indigenous American population
Worsening Life of Peasants
Peasants lived very poor lives
Many were landless & lived on shared community farms
Some peasants had their own land & could sell produce on the market
Most ate bread for nearly all of their meals
Little Ice Age of 1600s led to lower crop yields & famine
Monarchs consolidated all power, giving none to peasants
Monarchs claimed "divine right" (the idea that god allowed them to rule)
Peasants had no voice in government
Emotional & exuberant art style
Instead of realist works (like Renaissance), they'd glorify & exaggerate certain figures
Had lots of emotion, tension, animation, contrast
Often glorified monarchs or religious figures
Wanted paintings to appeal to the senses of ordinary people instead of only the wealthy (like Renaissance)
Baroque art was often used in churches & Catholic buildings
Baroque Music came later
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote both secular & religious pieces with lots of emotion & tension
The Italian Renaissance was a revival of ancient Roman classics & the revival of the admiration of human achievements. Humanists would value and portray humans whom they believed were very virtuous & did excellentthings. Also, wealthy people would commission artists to make large works of art for them to depict their power & wealth. New developments in art were the linear perspective (a way to make figures look 3-D on a 2-D surface) and humanist art (the idea of depicting humans in their natural forms without any exaggeration of certain parts). The Northern Renaissance was the spread of Renaissance ideas north of the Alps (throughout Europe), and it was more religious and a revival of ancient religious texts like the New Testament.
In the 16th century, Spain, France, and England became more centralized, setting them up for the Age of Exploration later on. Spain became unified when King Ferdinand married Queen Isabella in 1469, both rulers of large Spanish kingdoms. Ferdinand & Isabella combined their holdings into one unified Spanish state & continued the Spanish inquisition to retake Granada from the Muslims. France started consolidating power after expelling English from the 100 years' war. In England, the kings reconstructed & consolidated the power of the monarchy. All of these set the stage for these 3 nations to become major European powers later on.
The Protestant Reformation started in 1517 when Martin Luther published a pamphlet detailing his opposition to the Catholic church. He believed the Catholic church was corrupt and that true salvation comes directly from God and the Bible instead of through the corrupt church officials of the Catholic church. He created a branch of Christianity called Protestantism, and his followers were known as Lutherans (a sub-branch of Protestantism). John Calvin created Calvinism, where he believed god already chose who will be salvaged and that church & state are interconnected. King Henry VIII created the Anglican Church to consolidate all power in England. The creation of Protestantism led to religious wars in France & the Holy Roman Empire, all ending in peace settlements that give minorities the right to practicetheir religion. The Catholic Church wanted to regain its followers, so at the Council of Trent (1545-1563), it reformed its doctrine. The Catholic Counter Reformation & the creation of the Jesuit order (Catholic) led to some Protestants converting back to Catholicism
Europeans decided to explore the world & conquer more territory for 3 main reasons: They wanted more glory, they wanted a higher share of the wealth in the world (mercantilism), and they wanted to spread Christianity. Portugal, due to its prime location,started exploration by sailing down the West African coast, and Vasco da Gama reached India from Portugal in 1498. Spain also employed Christopher Columbus to sail westward, landing in the Americas (New World) in 1492. Spain conquered the Aztecs & Incas & established viceroyalties there, which were direct governances from the Spanish crown. Similarly, Portugal colonized Brazil & established regional governors there. English, French, and Dutch were mostly seeking the Northwest Passage (a route to Asia via north of Canada), but English made colonies in US East Coast, and French landed in Canada. They intended on using indigenous Americans to perform labor for them, but since most of them died of European diseases, they all used slaves from Africa to work on cash crop plantations in the Americas.
In the 1600s, peasants became poorer due to lower crop yields and the improving lives of the wealthy landowners. The Little Ice Age led to lower crop yields, making peasants really poor. Also, as monarchs consolidated all power, peasants had no voice in government. Meanwhile, baroque art developed, which portrayed the emotion of the artists to glorify certain ruler or gods. It was meant to appeal to ordinary people instead of only the wealthy. It contained lots of emotion, drama, contrast, and tension.
What were the technological factors that contributed to European exploration and expansion from 1450 to 1648? ›
Learning Objective G: Explain the technological factors that facilitated European exploration and expansion from 1450 to 1648. KC-1.3. II Advances in navigation, cartography, and military technology enabled Europeans to establish overseas colonies and empires.What was one effect of the centralization of political power from 1450 to 1648? ›
“The state centralization by European monarchs between 1450-1648 caused the entire landscape of Europe to become more powerful and well-off: politically, strong leaders such as Louis XIV and Peter the Great improved their countries standing; socially, religion was able to become more centralized and controlled; most ...What had the most significant effect on state centralization by European monarchs during the period 1450-1648? ›
Evaluate the most significant effect of state centralization by European monarchs during the period 1450-1648 including its role in overseas exploration. The most significant effect of state centralization would be the efficient bureaucracy.What is Period 1 in AP euro? ›
Period 1: Renaissance, Reformation, and Exploration (1450-1648) In AP® European History, period 1 spans from 1450 to 1648 CE.What is significant about the year 1450 in Europe? ›
By 1450, Europe saw an increase in literacy, urbanization, and connection to the global community. At one time, the only literate people of Europe were monks and other men tied to the Catholic Church. Gutenberg's printing press will change this. At one time, Europe was closed from trade with the rest of the world.What reasons were there to cause European expansion in the 1450's? ›
- Europeans started exploring beyond their known world for various reasons:
- Conquest and expansion.
- Religious conversion.
Solution : The political changes that occurred during 15th and 16th centuries were as follows: <br> (i) European kings strengthened their military as well as financial power during 15th and 16th centuries. They created powerful new states. These were much significant for Europe. Economic changes were also occurring.What were three major reasons for the expansion of Europe to the Americas from 1450 1750? ›
Overview. Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.What significant event happened in 1648? ›
The Peace of Westphalia, concluded in 1648 in Münster (Germany), ended the Thirty Years' War, which started with an anti-Habsburg revolt in Bohemia in 1618 but became an entanglement of different conflicts concerning the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, religion, and the state system of Europe.What were the major developments in Europe during the period between 1450 and 1750? ›
These new perspectives led to four massive cultural movements: the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. These revolutions in expression and thought changed the world.
Europeans were primarily motivated by money, religion, rivalry, and conquest. If they could find a quicker route to Asia, profits would balloon and religious ideologies would spread. At this time, wealth was measured by how much gold or silver a country had on hand.What was the central conflict in Europe during the 16th century? ›
The European wars of religion were a series of wars waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe, or Christendom.What is called 1st period? ›
Your first menstrual period is called menarche. It usually happens around age 12. But it may start earlier or later. Your period is a part of your menstrual cycle.How long is 1st period? ›
When you first start having your period, it may last only a few days. Your first few periods may be very light. You may only see a few spots of reddish brown blood. Anywhere from 2 to 7 days is normal.Is a period 1 cycle? ›
The menstrual cycle, which is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn't the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years after menstruation begins, long cycles are common.What happened during the year 1450? ›
1450 The printing press is developed. and spices; Portugal establishes trading posts in Spice Islands (Indonesia). Early 1500s Moghul Empire in India grows to include the entire Indian peninsula. bordering the Indian Ocean, trading with Arab Muslims, India, and China.Why is 1450 an important year? ›
May 8 – Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI of England. May 9 – Abdal-Latif Mirza, a Timurid dynasty monarch, is assassinated. May 13 – Charles VIII of Sweden, also serving as Carl I of Norway, is declared deposed from the latter throne, in favor of Christian I of Denmark.Why did Europeans of the 1400s and 1500s want to explore the world? ›
Along with the idea of looking for new trade routes, they also hoped to find new sources of gold, silver, and other valuables. Additionally, Europeans saw exploration as a way to bring Christianity to other cultures that lived in other lands.How did Europe change after 1450? ›
Social changes occurred in Europe as the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution challenged the power of the Catholic Church and weakened traditional bases of authority, while also creating the conditions for rapid growth in European economies and populations in later centuries.What was the major purpose of European colonization in the 15th and 16th centuries? ›
The opportunity to make money was one of the primary motivators for the colonization of the New World. The Virginia Company of London established the Jamestown colony to make a profit for its investors. Europe's period of exploration and colonization was fueled largely by necessity.
Motives for Exploration For early explorers, one of the main motives for exploration was the desire to find new trade routes to Asia. By the 1400s, merchants and Crusaders had brought many goods to Europe from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Demand for these goods increased the desire for trade.How did Europe change in the 14th and 15th centuries? ›
The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that ended centuries of European stability during the Late Middle Ages. Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instability, and religious upheavals.Which is the time period of changing ideas in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries? ›
The Renaissance, roughly spanning the 14th to 17th centuries, marked a time of cultural, intellectual and scientific advances.What was the 16th century known for in Europe? ›
The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. By 1500 the population in most areas of Europe was increasing after two centuries of decline or stagnation.What were the 3 reasons Europeans moved to the Americas? ›
The three main causes were a rapid increase in population, class rule and economic modernization.What are the 3 major factors that drove European imperialism? ›
The European imperialist push into Africa was motivated by three main factors, economic, political, and social. It developed in the nineteenth century following the collapse of the profitability of the slave trade, its abolition and suppression, as well as the expansion of the European capitalist Industrial Revolution.What changed in the period of 1450 1750 that changed interactions between African and European states? ›
The slave trade changed the power dynamics on the African continent, first between native Africans and later between Africans and Europeans.Why was 1648 a turning point in European history? ›
The Thirty Years' War, from 1618-1648, represented a major turning point in European history due to the consequences of the war which include the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, the destruction of Germany, and France becoming the dominant power in Europe.What event that took place in 1618 1648 has precipitated the rise of the international system dominated by nation states? ›
Thirty Years' War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.What changed for Europeans as a result of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648? ›
As a result of the Treaty of Westphalia, the Netherlands gained independence from Spain, Sweden gained control of the Baltic and France was acknowledged as the preeminent Western power. The power of the Holy Roman Emperor was broken and the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands.
The era between 1450 and 1750 saw the appearance of several land-based empires who built their power on the use of gunpowder: the Ottomans and the Safavids in Southwest Asia , the Mughals in India , the Ming and Qing in China , and the new Russian Empire.What are the 10 most significant events from the 1450 1700 period? ›
- 1492: Columbus Discovers the New World.
- Mercantilism and the East India Companies:
- 1455: The Printing Press.
- 1517: 95 Theses.
- Spanish Conquistadors in South America.
- Leonardo Da Vinci.
- William Shakespeare Born: 1564.
- 1453: The Fall of Constantinople.
The history of Europe is traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe (prior to about 800 BC), classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).What is the most important development of the early modern period between 1450 CE and 1750 CE? ›
The interconnection of the Eastern and Western hemispheres made possible by transoceanic voyaging marked a key transformation of this period. Technological innovations helped to make transoceanic connections possible.What was the era between 1400 and 1750 when Europeans made major changes to their economies due to new exploration called? ›
The 14th and 15th centuries were centuries of dramatic change across Europe. The Renaissance, which means rebirth in Italian, was a European cultural movement that led to many of those changes.What major events happened in Europe in the 1600s? ›
- Thirty Years' War, 1618–1648.
- English Civil War, 1642–1649.
- Age of Science.
- Age of Absolutism, epitomized by Louis XIV, "Sun King"
- Stuart Dynasty in England, starting with James I and resulting in Glorious Revolution.
- Peter the Great of Russia.
- Rise of Prussia.
The establishment of rationalist thinking led to an important turn of events in Europe in the 15th and 16th century. It witnessed the Renaissance movement which transformed contemporary literature, art, and philosophy.What were the causes of European expansion in the 16th century? ›
Overview. Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.What are the four types of periods? ›
The four phases of the menstrual cycle are menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase.What is a girl's first period like? ›
A girl's first period is usually very light, with sometimes only spotting or very little blood. The typical menstrual cycle is 28 days long, but periods are often irregular during the first few years of menstruation.
Your first menstrual period is called menarche. It usually happens around age 12. But it may start earlier or later. Your period is a part of your menstrual cycle.Is a girls first period heavy? ›
The first period often is very heavy and painful. Ovulation, or the process of making an egg, helps make a “normal” period. Unfortunately, many girls do not ovulate in the beginning, resulting in heavy bleeding. Some girls also may have a bleeding problem that shows up when they start having periods.Is day 1 the start of period? ›
The first day of a woman's period is day 1 of the menstrual cycle. "Periods last around 2 to 7 days, and women lose about 3 to 5 tablespoons of blood in a period," says Belfield.What were the technological reasons for European exploration? ›
New technology also paved the way for European voyages and exploration. Better maps showed the directions of ocean currents and lines of latitude. Inventions like the astrolabe and magnetic compass improved navigation.What were the 3 technologies that made European exploration easier? ›
Three tools are of particular importance to this time period: lateen sails, the astrolabe, and the magnetic compass. Lateen sails were triangular sails which allowed ships to sail directly into the wind, versus the formerly used square sails that did not allow ships to sail into the wind.What new technologies contributed to European exploration and expansion? ›
The five major advancements of the Age of Exploration were the astrolabe, magnetic compass, caravel, sextant and Mercator's projection.How did technological advancements contribute to European expansion? ›
The astrolabe, another navigational tool, allowed sailors to use the position of the sun and the stars to determine latitude. These inventions fueled the spirit of exploration and allowed Europeans to dominate travel, trade, and naval operations among the continents.What was invented in 1450? ›
The Greatest Invention
In 1450 Johann Gutenberg (c. 1398-1468) changed the world forever when he invented movable type. Gutenberg's printing press enabled the rapid duplication of pages of text (and numbers and symbols).
Geography The Age of Exploration caused ideas, technology, plants, and animals to be exchanged around the world. Government Several European countries competed for colonies overseas, both in Asia and the Americas. Economics Developments during the Age of Exploration led to the origins of modern capitalism.When did European Exploration take place? ›
The Age of Exploration (also called the Age of Discovery) began in the 1400s and continued through the 1600s. It was a period of time when the European nations began exploring the world.
Along with the idea of looking for new trade routes, they also hoped to find new sources of gold, silver, and other valuables. Additionally, Europeans saw exploration as a way to bring Christianity to other cultures that lived in other lands.Which invention is most associated with the European Age of Exploration? ›
The Age of Exploration was rooted in new technologies and ideas growing out of the Renaissance, these included advances in cartography, navigation, and shipbuilding. The most important development was the invention of first the Carrack and then caravel in Iberia.What were the major technology of Europe in middle period? ›
The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder, the invention of vertical windmills, spectacles, mechanical clocks, and greatly improved water mills, building techniques (Gothic architecture, medieval castles), and agriculture in general (three-field crop rotation).What are the 4 main reasons for European Exploration of the New World? ›
Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power. At different times and in different places, different motives are dominant.How did the Columbian Exchange affect the lives of people in the 1500s? ›
This included the rise of the Atlantic slave trade and other labor systems. The Columbian Exchange also had some unintentional but devastating results due to the transfer of diseases. Horrific epidemics, some far worse than the Black Death in both their severity and lasting effects, were enabled by exchange.What major developments drove European expansion? ›
The hemispheric dissemination of goods and knowledge not only sparked the Renaissance but fueled long-term European expansion. Asian goods flooded European markets, creating a demand for new commodities. This trade created vast new wealth, and Europeans battled one another for trade supremacy.What are the three developments that transformed Europe? ›
Europe is known not only for its revolutions and wars but also for its sociocultural changes, including the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and colonialism. The effects of these changes can still be seen in the world today.What was invented in 1400s? ›
Late 1400s: The Parachute, Flying Machines, and Whiskey
Others, such as the globe, helped humans navigate the world, and whiskey became a popular drink in the U.S. and worldwide. 1486: In Venice, the first known copyright was granted. 1485: Da Vinci designed the first parachute. 1487: Bell chimes were invented.
The development of steam-powered ships greatly assisted European powers that sought to extend their empires in Africa and Asia. Europeans had enjoyed a virtual monopoly on sea travel since the first imperial expansion began in the 1500s, but this only extended to the coasts.